Most studies use either an experimental or a quasi-experimental design employing a pre-test and/or a post-test evaluation, with four using only a pre-test questionnaire, and 6 using only post-test evaluations. the consequences of games and simulations on learning outcomes are measured through calculating the difference between pre-test and post-test many the experimental or quasi-experimental design. More specifically, the researchers compare the increases in scores between control and experimental groups to guage the effectiveness of using the tested games and simulations. The studies include longitudinal surveys (e.g. Hainey, 2011) conducted for a specified number of years, whereas others are comparative studies (e.g., Boeker, 2013; Poikela, 2015).
Researchers use quantitative methods within the majority of studies (68.6%), while13.1% use qualitative methodology. Some studies follow a mixed research methodology (nearly 18.2%), providing pragmatic perceptions and methodological triangulation of the results. The measures utilized in quantitative studies include knowledge questionnaires, also as academic, evaluation, and cognitive tests, while in qualitative studies the methods used include interviews, case studies, observations and focus groups.
The studies portray a spread of your time periods spent playing games and simulations: a number of the participants interact with games over one session, while others are involved within the gaming process for several weeks or maybe months (e.g., Yang & Chang, 2013; Woo, 2014). The studies include multi-player games (e.g., Silvia, 2012; Yin, 2013), also as single-player games.